Sunday, August 25, 2019

Retail Marketing and Distribution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Retail Marketing and Distribution - Essay Example Retailing has been a prevalent activity over the years but its systematic study has been necessitated in the present times because of the alterations in the components of retailing along with the conditions in the marketplace. Marketing is considered to be one of the most significant areas for any of the retail operations because of the fact that retailing tends to comprise the activities that are generally involved in the marketing as well as distribution of the goods and the services. The success of the retailer depends upon the marketing efficiency along with the capability of the retailer to comprehend and to serve the needs and the demands of the customers. Retailers are not only considered to be one of the most essential parts of the marketing channel but they are also considered to be creating an essential association between the customers and the manufacturers. The economic conditions of the countries as well as the economical structures of the communities are shaped by the r etailers. Furthermore, retailing has a direct influence upon the social life. It can be stated that though retailing has its roots in conventional societies by means of trading of goods and services however, it has been formalized and it has become a branded activity in the present times. In the context of demand driven societies, the retailers play a significant role as one of the chains in the channels of distribution. It can be observed that the ways customers tend to dominate the entire marketing as well as supply chain management, similarly the retailers also attain a significant role and they are found to be exerting their power by choosing their brand that they want to sell based upon their marketing demands and their strategies. Retailers are found to occupy a significant position in the distribution channel. The success of the channels of distribution generally depends upon the availability of the right kinds of goods and services, in right amount at the right place at the right time along with the procurement of the product from the right kind of sources. It can be stated that branding can be of great importance in the retail industry in order to impact customer perceptions and hence drive store choices and loyalty. Furthermore, retailer distribution plays a significant role in creating proper brand image among the consumers1. The main objective of the study is to investigate the way retailer branding strategies within retail stores impact the retailer sector. The study shall also aim at comprehending the meaning of retail branding strategies along with the forms of retailer branding strategies and their characteristics. It shall also highlight the role of retail branding in retailing. The study shall further progress with determining the current trends in retailer branding strategies and will discuss regarding the pros and the cons that have been recognized in the literatures regarding the use of the numerous approaches to retail branding. Definitio n of Retail Branding Brand can be considered

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Technology Advancements and Stem Cells Research in Hemophilia Paper - 1

Technology Advancements and Stem Cells in Hemophilia Treatment - Research Paper Example Science has technology has made significant progress in the last few years, what looked implausible a few years ago has become plausible today and what looks implausible today will become plausible tomorrow. Several major breakthroughs have been achieved in the last few years. Many new drugs have been invented to combat killer diseases and several lives have been saved because of these newly invented drugs. The invention of Stem cells has made life so much better. Significant progress in the field of stem cells was made by Dr. Ernest A. McCulloch and Dr. James E. They started working in unison in the 1960s and their research laid an ideal platform for the others to take it forward from there and that is exactly what the others did. Stem cells are really useful and they have saved several lives which would not have been plausible had stem cells not been invented. â€Å"Mouse embryonic stem cells treated in culture with a growth factor and then injected into the liver reverse a form of hemophilia in mice analogous to hemophilia B in humans, the new study shows.† (Stem Cells Treated with Growth Factor) The versatility of the stem cells is arguably their biggest strongest point, stem cells can easily grow in certain bodies and they are more than capable of achieving specialized functions. In addition to this, they can also renew themselves on their very own and this versatility makes them really useful. There are two types of stem cells namely, Embryonic stem cells and Adult stem cells. The two are really different from each other and understandably have different characteristics.  

Friday, August 23, 2019

Recruitment and Selection Policies Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Recruitment and Selection Policies - Case Study Example referral based, and for fresh positions via campus recruitments. The selection process is more rigorous and depending on the nature and intricacy of the job, competence of the staff involved in the selection, the costs and benefits associated with the position to be recruited for and most importantly, the time factor. The methods for selection includes just sorting through resumes, conducting tests to judge individual's or potential employee's aptitude, intelligence, trainability and personality, group discussion, interviews and also the assessment centers. Each will be elaborated in detail going forward. Some issues also emerge in the selection process, these will be discussed soon. As discussed earlier, recruitment process begins from identification of the need that the organization needs to fill in a certain vacancy up to the point where the organization receives the application forms or has to decide between whom to hire for the position. The firm has option to recruit either internally from within the firm or external sources. Hiring candidates from within the organization has its own advantages. Firstly, hiring from inside saves the organization considerable amount of money and time because individuals within the organization already has an idea regarding what the company is like, an in depth knowledge of its products and services and how a business functions overall. Thus, lesser investments might be required to develop the fit that is required; thus, saving potential time and the money that is required for training a completely new (external) recruit. More important, these internal promotions incentivize people to worker harder and move up the organizati onal ladder, they become more committed and work harder within the organization. Secondly, since a firm very well knows the individual's strengths and weaknesses as the person has served in the organization for quite some time, all the areas are pre-assessed; when in fact, hiring an outsider has risks attached to it and success might only be on the resume and not the person's practice itself. But, obviously, the advantages do not come alone; some of the disadvantages to the internal recruitment practices for the firm starts with replacing the position of the person which has been left vacant due to the promotion. Besides, hiring an outsider might bring in more diversification to the organization's skills, which might otherwise be limited because of phenomenon such as groupthink. As opposed to the internal recruitment, externally recruiting helps firms to hire people who are diversified in talent and in experience; but has its own disadvantage such as the firm may end up hiring someone who is ineffective and unsuitable for the organization. Selection Whereas, recruitment was a one way step, selection is a two way process of communication and establishment of a positive psychological contract; the sole aim being contacting and employing the best people for the job. The selection process results in either of the two outcomes, it either results in hiring of effective employees or rejection or exit of the non competent employees. The selection process is always faced by limitations such as validation, review and organizational constraints. For selection

Thursday, August 22, 2019

How the Macroeconomic Environment Affects Human Resource Essay Example for Free

How the Macroeconomic Environment Affects Human Resource Essay A microenvironment is simply a small environment within the operations of a business in which there are specialized features that make environment different from other business environments. In essence, it is the nearby and surrounding factors that affect and determine this environment. These factors affect the ability of the company in terms of service provision. As a matter of fact, it affects the supplies of the company, marketing strategies, marketing intermediaries, public relations and general company operations. Generally, a business microenvironment refers to the factors or elements within a particular organization and its immediate area of operations that in one way or another, has an effect on the performance of the company as well as the decision making processes of the company or business. CITATION Cal14 l 1033 (Monroe 2014)These elements are among the general public, since they form the bulk of the market, the channels of distribution among others. At the end of the day, this environment is of much importance to the success of a business. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of the microenvironments and macro environments of supermarkets as well as mobile companies thereby giving the empirical and theoretical relationships between the performance and of these business organizations as compared to their environments. The best strategy of analyzing the microenvironment of a business organization is through the SWOT technique in which one analyzes the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats within the company. CITATION Sub07 l 1033 (Subrata Ghatak 2007)The Strengths of a Company greatly determine the success of business organizations. The strength of a business organization can be measured in terms of; technological advancements, economies of scale as well as the availability of resources. The technology of a mobile company determines the amount of their sales. For instance, high levels of technology for a mobile company would reduce the cost of production that a company incurs. Decrease in cost of production simply implies that the company makes super normal profits, that is, profits greater than zero. Technology therefore plays a very key role. Economies of Scale have the same effect as well. Economies of scale simply imply to the company’s or supermarket’s market base. Companies that enjoy economies of scale lower their cost of production, thereby increasing their profit margins. Resource availability is also equally important. As a matter of fact, the importance of availability of resources to any business organization can never be underestimated. Resource availability is could imply human, natural or financial resource. All these are the drivers of the business, both in a mobile company as well as for supermarkets. CIT ATION Arv l 1033 (Arvil Van Adams n.d.)The weaknesses within an organization also determine its level of performance to a very large extent. What matters at the end of the day is how the supermarket or mobile company in question addresses the weakness that it faces in terms of operation. The most common weaknesses in either of these two enterprises are in terms of the prices, globalization and marketing. For mobile companies for instance, it is very difficult to come up with price floors owing to the products they produce. Generally, mobile phones are relatively expensive. As such, they are not the easiest products to market. Globalization on the other hand, is important since it determines the market base and network of a business. Most mobile companies have done tremendously well in this particular area. CITATION Sub07 l 1033 (Subrata Ghatak 2007)Opportunities and Threats play a very crucial role in the microenvironment of a business organization. They either make or break the org anization. The opportunities of supermarkets and mobile companies most of the time come as a result of collaboration. For instance, supermarkets can collaborate with the companies that they sell their products. It is through such strategies that supermarkets can easily give their clients discounts and offers. Discounts and offers are simply marketing strategies in which business organizations attract their customers. Mobile companies, on the other hand, can take advantage of their opportunities through collaboration with other electronic companies. For instance, they could collaborate with network service providers and as such use this platform to market their products. It is very important therefore, for a company to take advantage of whatsoever opportunity that comes their way. CITATION Les12 l 1033 (Leslie Hamilton 2012)A threat is another factor that is prevalent in the microeconomic environment of a business. There are various forms of threats that can affect the performance of a business. Threats may result from social, political or economic sources. However, common threats that mobile companies and supermarkets face are in relation to risks and uncertainties. Risks and uncertainties face almost every business and they could be in terms of price fluctuations, the risk of a technology becoming obsolete, market variations and so on. Competition is another threat that mobile companies as well as supermarkets have to deal with. It is a challenge that also comes an opportunity. Competition encourages organizations to come up with more advanced forms of technology for instance of mobile companies. Supermarkets, on the other hand, experience a lot of competition due to the homogeneity of products. CITATION Les12 l 1033 (Leslie Hamilton 2012)The next part of the paper gives an insight on the macroeconomic market. This market environment deals with broader economic issues such as inflation, unemployment, national income and GDP. The Pestel model is the best analy sis to use so as to examine this economic environment. The Pestel assessment basically deals with the political environment, the environmental environment, the social, technological, economic and finally the legal environment that surrounds an organization. Basically, a macro environment defines the conditions that exist in the whole economy as opposed to particular sections or regions in the economy. As such, this environment follows up the trends in the GDP market, monetary policies, fiscal policies, level of spending as well as employment. CITATION Dee06 l 1033 (Deepashree 2006) The political environment generally deals with the political factors that affect the performance of a business. Political factors, more often than not, come with policies. The fiscal and monetary policies for instance, affect businesses to a great deal. This depends on whether they are expansionary or contractionary. The government of a country has control of most businesses. Another way through which pol itical factors affect businesses is through the political environment of a country, that is, whether the political temperatures are favorable for investment. Political instabilities in a country greatly discourage investment. This affects both mobile companies and supermarkets since it raises the question of globalization. With high political temperatures, it becomes very difficult to explore global markets. CITATION Arv l 1033 (Arvil Van Adams n.d.)The environment, on its own affects the performance of a business. The environment of a business is basically determined by the climatic conditions. The climate, or weather, in this case, will mostly affect a supermarket. As a matter of fact, there are goods whose demand rises with temperature. Such goods are among electronic fans. Supermarkets are bound to experience increase in sale of such product in the hot weather. On the other hand, there are other products such as umbrellas whose demand is bound to increase with the onset of cold weather. As such, though to a small extent, environmental factors play a role as factors in the macroeconomic environment. CITATION Sub07 l 1033 (Subrata Ghatak 2007)Social and cultural factors have a major effect as elements in the macroeconomic environment. This segment affects the performance of a business through the traditions, customs and beliefs of a society. It also deals with the issue of aging. Aging has an indirect effect on the demand and supply of a commodity. For the working population, when they age, they are paid handsomely in terms of pension. As a result, most of them might tend to spend more on luxury goods. This is how mobile companies get to benefit. The general consumption for this proportion of population increases and as such, this also affects supermarkets. The beliefs and attitudes of a population also determine the consumption pattern through tastes and preferences. CITATION Cal14 l 1033 (Monroe 2014)Technological factors affect the operations and performa nce of a business to a very large extent. Technology has a direct effect on production costs. This is because high levels of technology imply less production costs. The relationship between technology and consumption is quite simple. Technology is a major factor of production, both for mobile companies and supermarkets. There is low demand of human resource with high levels of technology. This makes production relatively cheaper. The total cost of production reduces as well. The end result of this is that the profit margin increases. Technology may also become obsolete and this has a negative impact on the performance of the business. CITATION Les12 l 1033 (Leslie Hamilton 2012)Economic factors are the other factors that are prevalent in the macro environment of a business. Under this umbrella lie major issues to do with inflation, unemployment, GDP, Per Capita Income and many others. These factors generally create an economic environment and have the same effect on mobile companies and supermarkets depending on their degree of severity. A highly inflated economy means that the general price level of goods be it in supermarkets or from mobile phone companies. As a result, such an economy does not encourage investment by either of the two enterprises. CITATION Dee06 l 1033 (Deepashree 2006)Legal factors; these are legislations that affect the performance of a business. The quota system, for instance, is a legislation that affects the amount of imports. Narrowing down to mobile companies, they are affected by government policies to a very great extent. This is because their transactions mainly involve importation and exportation of products. Most governments have extremely stringent laws and regulations. Governments are often very strict especially with the quality of goods they import. Moreover, with respect to supermarkets, governments may have very strict regulations with regard to importation so as to promote local industries. Such issues affect the performa nce of companies to a very great extent. Taxes, which are stipulated by the government, are other pieces of legislation that both mobile companies and supermarkets have to come to terms with. From the above analysis, we can conclude that both the macro environment and the microenvironment have on the performance of a business, both positively. CITATION Arv l 1033 (Arvil Van Adams n.d.) References l 1033 Arvil Van Adams, ‎Robert S. Goldfarb, ‎Terence Kelly. How the Macroeconomic Environment Affects Human Resource. n.d. Deepashree. Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Environment. Tata McGraw Hill Education, 2006. Leslie Hamilton, ‎Philip Webster. International Business Environment. Oxford University Press, 2012. Monroe, Calvin. An Analysis of the UK Mobile Environment. GRIN Verlag, 2014. Subrata Ghatak, ‎Nige Healey, ‎Peter Jackson. The Macroecoomic Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Source document

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Mission of the IMF Essay Example for Free

Mission of the IMF Essay The primary and most important mission of the IMF is declared to be provision of monetary assistance to countries facing serious economic and financial troubles from the accumulated funds of the IMF from the deposits of the organizations 185 member nations. Although the stated goal of the provided aid is therefore to help the distressed nation sail through their difficulties, simply the fact that these aids are associated with certain conditionalities which essentially make them tied aids, do make the veracity of such an assumption dubious. Although the conditions that are attached with the provided aids are justified as being necessary amendments that the receiving nation has to make to ensure that such distress does not revisit the nation, often the structural adjustments that are suggested and actually imposed seem to have more potential benefits for nations other than the recipient. The fact that the IMF’s judgements and decisions are made through voting in which the members with higher shares of subscription receive higher weightage casts further shadows of doubt on the proper motivations for the Fund’s actions. Therefore, there is reason to believe that the IMF’s true goals are actually masked with justificatory reasoning which attempt to establish it in glorious roles but are actually in line with those of certain economic powers that dominate the IMF’s decision making and reap the benefits of enforcing changes upon nations weakened enough to have no other choice but to accept the conditions and thereby actually cause greater benefit to those economies rather than themselves. When one sees these aids in light of such motives, in spite of the stated motives, the term aid certainly becomes a misnomer. The so called Austerity programs of the IMF which by definition seek to restore a distressed nation to a state so that it is able to repay its debts by advocating reduced government spending and increased taxes have been subject to a lot of controversy. Currency devaluation is often a recommendation of the IMF to distressed countries in these programmes. But, neo-classical supply-side economists claim, to the governments of poor nations with struggling economies which are force to seek foreign aid, such pro-Keynesian policies which are actually tailor made for advanced capitalist economies undergoing depression are destructive to economic prosperity. The IMF also advocates increased taxes as part of these programmes to ensure increased government revenue. But critics point out that such increased taxation implicitly implies recessionary pressure on the economy, some thing it is certainly not in a state to handle being in a distressed enough state to seek foreign aid. The potential economic contraction that is likely to follow has more chances of damaging the economy rather than working in its advantage. In fact Stiglitz (2002) argues that in converting to a rather Monetarist approach, the IMF had lost all valid purpose, of its existence as provision of funds for nations to enable them to carry out Keynesian reflations was what it was designed for. The IMF’s success has been considerably limited in light of the very significant number of failures it has faced. The fact that it has been able to increase overall international cooperation and promote trade openness is a largely highlighted success of the institution. It is also posited that since its inception and more since the Second World War, the IMF’s active intervention has led to enhanced global macroeconomic stability and growth. However, since the 1980s critics claim that more than 100 of the member countries have faced banking collapses which have led to reductions in GDP by four percent or more, a precedent by far since post depression history (Stiglitz, 2002). It is often pointed out that the IMF actually responds to or often causes crises rather than prevent them. The long lag in the response time to any crisis is also noted to be one of the very significant failures of the institution. As direct examples of the IMF’s intervention worsening the situation of a nation we can cite the instance of Argentina, which had been previously considered as a model country by the IMF for its compliance to the Fund’s policy proposals. This nation experienced a severe crisis in 2001, an event mostly attributed to budget restrictions induced by the IMF which significantly reduced the governments ability to maintain infrastructural expenses and it failed to provide even in very crucial and basic areas like health, education, and security. Another example of IMF Structural Adjustment Programmes actually aggravating a problem was the Goldenberg scandal in Kenya. The IMF imposed mandatory regulations on the Kenyan central bank which till then oversaw all currency in and out flows, which required it to permit easier currency movements through reduced regulations in the market for foreign exchange and the capital market. Although this adjustment failed to deliver miserably on its promise of increased foreign investment it allowed, it certainly allowed billions of Kenyan shillings to be siphoned off thereby actually leaving the country far worse off than before the implementation of the IMF reforms (Axel, 2003). References: Dreher, Axel (2003). The Influence of Elections on IMF Programme Interruptions. The Journal of Development Studies 39 (6): 101–120 Stiglitz, J. , (2002) Globalization and its Discontents, New York: WW Norton Company

The Plastic Waste And Management Methods Environmental Sciences Essay

The Plastic Waste And Management Methods Environmental Sciences Essay This dissertation contributes new and unique evidence to the debates surrounding plastic waste management options and their effects on the environment. A recurring theme in the debates around plastic waste management system is the extent to that whether the plastic waste disposal options give genuine benefits to the environment. Often, criticizers of the strategy drive towards larger plastic recycling assert that the act of recycling could be in fact has less or no benefit to the environment, consuming extra energy in the collection and transportation of plastic waste to the recycling facilities than is saved by the procedure of recycling. In order to notify this debate in details, this dissertation commissioned a key international LCAs studies. By reviewing considerable international studies, and employing rigorous criteria to filter out those studies that have less robust methodology and assumptions, after the number of studies screened 11 state of the art LCAs were selected for methodical study, including disparate scenarios. The result is more objective oriented analysis of the environmental encounters of different waste management methods for Plastics waste than one single study can deliver. Through the use of past LCAs, it investigates both plastic waste disposal options and environmental effect of the activities of plastic waste management by using meta and statistical analytical methods. Research methodology also considered, setting up a framework to review and selection restricting criteria for LCA studies. In so doing it provides the waste management methods performances with regards to environmental indicators. Persuading plastic methods have been chosen to comparing options :Landfilling, recycling, incineration and pyrolysis performances with regards to perusing environmental impact indicators: climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demands and water consumption. This dissertation focuses on recycling, incineration, landfilling and pyrolysis that are plastic waste disposal methods and their performance concerning climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demand, and water consumption that are environmental impacts indicators. By reviewing past LCAs, it investigates plastic waste management options and environmental effect of the activities involved. For selection of LCA studies restricting selection criteria are developed. Meta analytical methods were adapted to synthesize and codify the findings of LCAs. Codified data were statistically analysed to calculate mean size effect. It provides the best, intermediately and the worst option concerning environmental performances of plastic waste management methods. The results are clear that all of the studies prop the following conclusions:. after comparison between of recycling, land filling, incineration and pyrolysis of waste plastic, Recycling appears to be a preferable management option over alternatives. Whereas, pyrolysis method emerged as a promising option for plastic waste disposal. INTRODUCTION This study grew from a meeting of two interests The authors academic interest in the environment and development issues, and work experience in the field of Polyethylene (PET) plastic. The main objective of this dissertation is is to contribute to the debate concerning the causes of environmental impacts of plastic waste management methods The following section introduces the background and significance of choosing this study area and context of the study. It also outlines the aim and objectives of the dissertation. Additionally, organisation of the whole study will be informed. Finally, justification of the undertakings the present study will be given. Plastics waste, need of a better waste management method and sustainability and plastic will be discussed. 1.1 Plastic waste and management methods Plastic is a durable, versatile material and relatively inexpensive. Plastic products have brought benefits to society in many ways such as quality of life, jobs, and economic activities. However, waste plastic also imposes environmental impacts. In view of the fact that plastic is non-biodegradable, it can remain in the atmosphere for a exceedingly long time and so plastic poses risks to the environment and human health, It is also difficult to reuse and/or recycle in practice (European Commission, 2013a). Many countries are trying to incorporate different strategies to increase plastic recycling rates. According to the Environmental agency (UK), statutory recycling targets have been given to all the local authorities in Wales (2012a). Whereas, in Scotland waste regulations operates without statutory recycling targets, and here funds are available for local authorities to help increase recycling rate(2012b). By making recycling mandatory or funding recycling a difference can be made to global environmental issue that exists because of waste. This dissertation focuses on recycling, incineration, landfilling and pyrolysis that are plastic waste disposal methods and their performance concerning climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demand, and water consumption that are included as environmental impacts indicators. By using past LCAs findings, it investigates plastic waste disposal options and environmental effect of the activities involved in plastic waste management. 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study: The aim of this research dissertation is to identify environmentally sustainable management options for waste plastics. There will be an attempt to achieve the aim of this study by undertaking following three objectives. Objective 1: By reviewing, the relevant literature to address environmental issues related to the recycling, landfilling, pyrolysis and incineration. In addition to environmental indicators that are included in the study: climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demand, and water consumption evaluating international processes to recommend the best legislation, policies and practices. Objective 2: Objective two is to set up a framework for LCA selections. Once LCA studies are retained Meta analytical methods will be applied to synthesize the findings of selected LCAs. Further, use of Meta synthesis for the codification of the LCA findings. Finally, statistically analysed the data to calculate mean effect size using Microsoft excel tool. In order to assess the environmental viability of recycling, landfilling, pyrolysis and incineration for waste plastics through appraisal of included environmental indicators. Objective 3: The presentation of the codified data sample will take place in this objective. Codified data will be statistically analysed using Microsoft excels (2010). To present in the form of histograms and charts, four management options will be assessed under each environmental indicator based on the results of each selected LCA study. To find out which one of the four waste management methods emerges as the best option regarding each or environmental indicator performances. 1.3 Justification of the study: Plastic waste management and its environmental implications are a majorly important issue and one of the major research topics of many governmental and environmental entities such as NAPCOR, DEFRA, WRAP, Recoup, Environmental Protection Agencies(EPAs) of majorities of countries and United Nation(UN). WRAP (2006) and Villanueva et al (2004). For instance,published a major preliminary environmental impact analysis of a different type of waste materials including plastic and comparison of recycling, incineration and land filling by reviewing international LCAs and the conclusion of that research is recycling offers more environmental benefits than alternatives. This research considered as high quality and information shared by UN and US EPA. However, there have been many waste management option emerged since WRAP report been published such as pyrolysis and gasification, Efw informs Jowit (2010). What is different in this study is the inclusion of pyrolysis, which as a new method was not included in WRAP (2006) and Villanueva et al (2004). Second gap that is addressed is the inclusion of one of the environmental indicators -water consumption in the impact studies, this indicator previously ignored by WRAP (2006) where the concentration is on Climate Change, Energy demand and Depletion of natural resources. To investigate and address these gaps the author will undertake past LCA studies. Findings of LCAs will present this in a new way. Additionally, the decision to use a meta- analysis approach originated from United Nations Development Program (UNDP) report on review of past LCA using Meta analysis (2012).however, LCA selecting criteria were not used in UNDP research, which is otherwise adopted in this present study to ensure quality of the result. This study will also try to find out whether recycling is environmentally, sustainable option for plastic waste as claimed by past studies or will emerging technologies will prove to be a better option. This report will also attempt to identify data gap in the literature review and recommend if there is a need for further research in the specific area for future researchers. 1.4 Organisation of the study: The research structure includes four sections. Firstly, Literature review section that will review the existing literature that is related to four waste management options, continuously building towards the significance of environmental sustainability of plastic waste management methods. Additionally, to give broader understanding of included environmental indicators will be studied. Review of international policies, legislation and measures that are pertaining to plastic waste management methods and environmental indicators. The main purpose of this section is also to identify a data gap in the literature. Secondly, by reviewing waste management methods author will try to find out which is the acknowledged environmentally sustainable plastic waste disposal option. Secondly, methodology section will describe adapted methods for data collection where data will be collected for this study to illustrate the broader issues of preceding sections concerning environmental impacts of existing waste management options. This section will explain rigorous criteria applied for selection of data sample. Meta analytical method steps used for codification will be outlined. Followed by systematic adaptation of statistical analysis using Microsoft excel to calculate mean effect size will be informed. Thirdly, presentation and interpretation of the results that are obtained from the analysis of data will take place. Based on the findings, discussion will take place in this section followed by recommendations to future researchers. Finally, the conclusion will employ findings of the dissertation and discussion as a reference in this section and research questions will be answered. More importantly, main aim and all the objectives in connection with the findings of this dissertation will be addressed in the conclusion section. Summary This section provides information that undertaken study area is vital and problematic. Justifications have been given for undertakings of this study along with the gap in existing knowledge have been addressed where evidence has been given of previous studies further role of this dissertation findings was informed. Organisation of this study has been informed. This section also informed the significance sustainability to justify inclusion of environmentally sustainability in this study area. Following section will review the known literature in accordance with existing plastic waste management methods and identify its environmental implications. It will also assess proposed policies, proven strategies those are originally introduced to help enhance present environmental conditions; summarisation of real life case studies and learned examples will be noted in the following section by introducing and reviewing items of previous research in the area. LiTeRATURE REVIEW This section is an attempt to achieve the objective one. The following section divided into three parts, First section addresses plastic waste management methods: landfilling, recycling, pyrolysis and incineration. Secondly, environmental indicators: climate Change, depletion of natural resources, energy demands and water consumptions that are used in the study as a benchmarking to compare each waste management method performances. Finally, provides an overview of the international strategies and policies applied in practice. Key sources used for this study are reports of Government Agencies: WRAP, DEFRA and EU and internationally United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) along with published international scientific databases and journals from Springer, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment and ScienceDirect. This represents a combination of sources including Governmental Agencies and academic authors. In addition, the webpage of the European Commission was searched for studies commissioned as input to EU policies. Plastic waste problem description: Broulidakis Martà ­nez (2012) noted that waste is not treated as worthless garbage anymore, it is instead believed as a re. Nevertheless, what is happening with the resources? Treating waste sustainably is a crucial issue. Identifying whether or not waste is been managed in a way that is betterment for environment, society and it should be economical as well. This chapter will find an answer to those questions by reviewing already known literature. It will also try to identify which one is the known environmentally sustainable method for plastic waste by reviewing published articles, studies and set of research. It was stated by Tehrani et al., in 2009 that there is no a solitary knowledge of a single technology that can resolve the waste associated issues. In order to provide a broader understanding of this issue, following section will discuss the existing plastic waste management options to gain a better understanding of the processes related to waste management and their environmental effects. 2.1 Waste management methods and their environmental impacts The following section addresses methods that are in use for the management of plastic waste include Landfill, Incineration, Pyrolysis and Recycling along with their environmental impacts are discussed now in details. 2.1.1 Landfill A landfill is a one of the waste management methods in which solid wastes are disposed in a manner that limits their encounter on the environment. According to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Landfilling is the complex system of interrelated material and sub system that act together to break down and stabilize disposed waste overtime (2004). Landfill is extremely old disposal method, but yet one of the utilized one for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Apart from taking large area of land it also generate odour, bio-aerosols, visual disturbance and lead to the release of hazardous chemicals through the leachate which is the liquid that drains or leaches from a landfill sites. Emission of greenhouse gas through landfill is due to organic breakdown of disposal of biodegradable including bio plastic waste. European Union Low informed in 2008s issue on the management of bio-waste in the EU countries that Landfill of waste usually entails non-recoverable loss of resources and land. Since landfill, sites can normally not be used after closure for scientific engineering and/or health risk reasons and in the medium to long term. This review of literature found that landfilling is not considered a sustainable waste management solution. 2.1.2 Incineration Incineration is a significant method that avoids the problem of landfilling space problems. In this method, thermal waste treatment procedure takes place where raw or unprocessed plastics waste can be utilized as feedstock. Plastic waste is combusted in different temperature according to the type of plastic and in this period plastic waste modified to carbon dioxide, water and non-combustible materials alongside solid residue state leaves incinerator bottom ash (IBA) that always has contain a small amount of carbon residual (DEFRA, 2012). Published report of the Environment Agency (2002) on the safety of incinerator ash confirms that IBA can be safely used as an aggregate in construction as it contains dioxin levels similar to those found in soils. However, friends of earth review reports argued that the government should give guidance on acceptable contamination levels in construction materials (2002). International Journal of Environment in Comparative study of municipal solid wast e treatment technologies using life cycle assessment method stated that incineration as one of the competent strategies to resolve waste association problems (Zaman, 2010) and its ability to generate heat and energy from the plastic waste. However, considering incineration of plastic waste is solely depending on whether or not energy is recovered (Weiss et.al ,2012)along with other aspects such as quality of fuel and efficiency of energy which varies considerably depending on whether incineration plant delivers electricity, heat or both along with the used technology, for instance, higher efficiencies can be achieved in fuel gas condensation method. However, according to the EUs report (2010) on waste management, the environmental impacts of incinerating plastic waste included greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, Pilz, et al. (2010) in their report on The impact of plastics on life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Europe informed that in some circumstances, incineration of plastic waste in MSW can result in a net increase in CO2 emissions. It is certain that this process can be helpful in avoided some of the plastic waste problems, but it also has environmental impacts. 2.1.3 Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is an advanced thermal treatment. Interest in pyrolysis has heightened over the past decade, and there is considerable anticipation that this technology will prove to be viable alternatives for dealing with residual fractions municipal waste to assist in compliance with the Landfill diversion elements of the EC Landfill Directive (DEFRA, 2004). Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of waste in the absence of air to produce gas, diesel like pyrolysis oil) or solid (mainly ash, char, and carbon). Zhiru (2001) pointed out difference in pyrolysis oil and diesel and noted that diesel cannot be assumed compatible with pyrolysis fuels (p.80) and remarkably few reports related to the behaviour of materials in pyrolysis fuels are available. Findings of research by Alston and Arnold (2011) informs that pyrolysis is a strong compromise method as compared to Landfill, Recycling and Incineration with their environmental impact categories. As the gases and oil produced in pyrolysis could be used as fuel and so provides significant resource saving without high impact on climate or landfill space. Additionally, Scheirs and Kaminsky (2006) noted, the main advantage of pyrolysis is that allows process of plastic waste which is otherwise difficult to recycle. This process produces reusable products with unlimited market acceptance (p24). This book is helpful in understanding pyrolysis process. However, does not assess environmental impacts of pyrolysis, nevertheless, it has been noted that unlike incineration, there are no environmentally harmful emissions in pyrolysis process (p.598). 2.1.4 Recycling Recycling is considered as one of the classic goals in sustainable waste management system (Bohma et, al 2010). Collected waste plastic are being sent to various market ,due to growing market for recycled plastics which includes closed loop systems for PET bottles. Plastics are also exported to abroad for recycling purpose (Defra, 2012), but it is argued environmental benefits of export overshadow the impact of transportation. Environmental impacts of transportation involved in exportation are high. Recycling can prevent an enormous amount of virgin production, which leads to saving energy, depletion of raw material, reducing GHG emissions including acidification even after considering transportation. However, WRAP (2006) argued that, The accurate impacts are depending on the virgin material being replaced and life span of replaced product. PET is one of the plastics types which is collected the most for recycling (DEFRA,2011b) this type of plastic is been included in the present stu dy. Recycling protects resources embodied in waste plastic however, it is argued by many about the requirement of energy inputs for the transformation process, this lead to environmental impacts. Besides that, not all of plastic types can be recycled. The PET bottle has strong advantages in recycling, however, complex products like composites, low weight articles or those that are contaminated with other products are less favourable to recycling. 2.2 Health impacts of plastic waste recycling There is a risk involved in plastic waste recycling affecting local populations in countries with less rigorous regulations than in the EU (Mudgal et.al 2010). Wong et.al noted that the majority of the cases companies fail to provide appropriate facilities protecting the environment and human health (2007). Such as chipping and melting of plastics in unventilated areas that are not seen in European practice can have negative consequences on human health. One specific case study showed due to incomplete combustion of Waste Electrical, and Electronic Equipment(WEEE) from plastic materials such as PVC and plastic chips there was higher concentrations of heavy metal found in the air of the China (Guiyu region). The study showed high concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PDBEs) in the air, released from the melting of polymers that contain brominated flame-retardants. Admittedly, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of America have informed that high exposure to PDBEs, which found in the human body, has been linked to, hormone disruption, thyroid permanent learning and memory impairment, behavioural changes, hearing deficits, fatal malformations and possibly cancer (Herbstman et al., 2010). However, human toxicity issue is ignored by environmental impact studies those are based on qualitative studies and the same confirmed by Wollny and European Environmental Bureau (EEB) Brussels(2013) 2.3 Environmental Impacts Indicators The following table explains each of indicators that are included in this study; it also critically analyse policies and measures taken to prevent environmental impact. Indicator Description of Environmental Indictor Description, impact and related worldwide policies Climate Change Climate change is also addressed as globe warming. Globe warming is the rise in the average temperature of the earth surface, due to a possible rise in the greenhouse impacts, provoked by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Research published in the journal PLoS Medicine (2012) informs according to a group of European public health experts that climate change could alter patterns of food availability, physical activity and in some cases might bring direct physical harm. Friends of Earth (2007) reported that waste prevention is the most beneficial option from a climate point of view, followed by reuse and recycling; Warhorse and Watson confirm (2006) landfill and incineration are the worse options (p.6) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC, 2013) an international treaty joined by 195 countries, except America. To follow up from Kyoto protocol green house gas emission is seen as the most crucial issue within the field of climate change policies. BBC informed back in 2009 that The America accounts for almost 25% of the worlds total CO2 emission and have received a large amount of criticism for its stance on climate change. Depletion of natural resources Resource depletion described as the cutting potential of all natural resources. The resources believed in this study are mineral and fossil resources. Plastics are made from oil, coal and gas, which are limited natural resources (Australia EPA,2013).majority of plastic bags are made from polyethylene, made up of natural gas, and Plastic is not biodegradable, so all the plastic that has ever been made is stilexist around us today. Most of it is in landfills, if not then floating in the sea. University of Cambridges report on plastic recycling informed that the production of 1 kg of polyethylene (PET or LDPE), requires the equivalent of 2 kg of oil for energy and raw material. Although plastics only consume around 4% of the worlds oil, supplies are becoming depleted. Once depleted these resources cannot be replaced. The depletion of natural resources is becoming a key focus(Karen,2008) This is evident in the UNs Agenda 21 Section 2 which provides the necessary steps to be taken by all countries to sustain their natural resources (2002) Schilling chiang confirms the depletion of natural resources is a sustainable development issue (2011).furthermore, Salvati and Marco (2008) noted in regards to natural resources, depletion is of concern for sustainability as it poses the ability to degrade current environments(p.218) and potential to impact the needs of future generations(p.523) Energy demand Primary energy is obtainable raw energy in nature and is separated into renewable and nonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  renewable primary energies. The non renewable are: atomic energy, usual gas, coal, and oil, Renewable is wind energy, solar, biomass and hydraulic. UK department of Energy and Climate Change (2012) informed that the UK has developed Pathways analysis and calculator tool which will help policy makers. Gervet (2007) in his captivating report on the use of crude oil in plastic making contributing to the global warming pointed out that energy consumption in total worldwide plastic production from 1939 till 2004 is 0.59 10 14 kWh (p.5). Plastics Europe informed in order to produce plastic products, energy resources are consumed(2013). Currently energy resources are majorly obtained from non-renewable sources, and when used; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are produced. Nevertheless, it was established in a study undertaken by GUA/denkstatt in 2004/2005 even more energy would be consumed along with more GHG emission, if plastic products were to be substituted by alternative materials. [Pilz et al., 2005]. Water consumption Water consumption symbolizes to the removal of water from the various origins (rivers, seas, and groundwater) for use by humans. This water is not returned to the origins and sources. According to the UN World Development Report, up to 500 Million Tons of wastes accumulate each year from Industry; most of it goes into the fresh water supply. Also informed some of the developing countries dump 70 % of industrial waste into untreated waters where drinking water gets polluted (2013). Professor Grossman noted back in 2004 that Industrial water use is about 22 %. According to Centre for Science and environment- India, countries all over the world set standards and target for water consumption for industries. China, For instance government push companies to save as much as 6 billion cubic meters of water per year informed in China water conservation Agency report in 2005. Proposed and implemented governmental strategies and policies targeting plastic waste will be discussed in details in the following part of this chapter. 2.4 Policies on plastic waste Plastic waste management goes across a numerous policy fields: along with sustainable management of resources and habitat protection, climate change, agriculture, soil protection and energy, biodiversity. Purpose of this section is to provide an overview of measures taken by Government agencies and environmental protection bodies to reduce the environmental impacts of plastic waste.According to Science for environmental policies ,European commission, (2011) Municipal waste collection and separation is a vital part in all waste management methods, for countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden where waste management systems are more advanced, and source separated collection rates are already high(Waste Management World, 2013 b).waste management world (2013) reported European Union as the most advanced waste management system. The European exports of plastic waste rose by 250%, reaching 2.27 million tonnes approximately 5 million tonnes are annually recycled in Europe. Some selected counters, policies and measures related to the waste management are discussed in following table Country and Government Agency Introduced, Implemented Policies, Legislation and measures Netherlands Dutch Waste Management Association (DWMA) The Netherland recycle no less than 64% of its waste and the remainder are incinerated with generation of electricity, and a small percentage ends up in landfill. This is a country that is practically unique when consider recycling. Separating waste is the popular environmental measure activity among Dutch people that account for more than 90% of Dutch people involved in this sort of activities. Source: http://www.dwma.eu United State of America National Solid Wastes Management Association (NSWMA) According to a recent study by NSMWA Privatised, waste services signifies cost savings and lower financial risks for municipalities than public sector counterparts d Experiment of using fly ash(recycling toxic)as an additive to produce light weight composite that can be used in the automotive industry is taking place in the New York university. The university researchers claim that it has the potential to keep tons of toxic waste out of landfills while lowering the cost of some of the expensive raw materials. Source: www.environmentalistseveryday.org Qatar Ministry of Environment(MOE) An integrated solid waste treatment in the Qatar, that is the first of its kind in the Middle East. This facility centre has a capacity of treating 2300 tonnes of solid waste per day, along with 5000 tonnes of CD waste. Source: www.moe.gov.qa United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) UK is home to the worlds largest plastics recycling plant. The  £15 million venture by Coca-Cola, WRAP and ethical plastic bottle recycle, ECO Plastics is going to be the worlds largest plastics reprocessing facility. The plant will save about 33, 5000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per Annum that is the equivalent of taking 15,715 cars off the road. Source: www.defra.gov.uk Taiwan EPA Taiwan is planning to excavate about 400 landfills for energy and material recovery, additionally, add bio-energy capacity to its incineration facilities. Environmental Protection administration (EPA)Taiwan Source: www.epa.gov.tw Australia Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities Stewardship Bill have been introduced by the Australian government and of the aim of helping to manage the environmental, and human health. This will demand manufacturers and importers of computers, and TVs to fund and implement national collection and recycling of these products. Source: www.environment.gov.au Example of failure of advanced waste management systems:The increasingly recognized problem of plastic floati

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Energy Alternatives: Oil Essay -- Iraq Oil War Energy Essays Papers

Energy Alternatives: Oil Every day the world burns more that 80 million barrels of oil. By 2016, estimates believe that oil consumption will rise to around 100 millions barrels a day. (Oil Facts) The United States was responsible for 25% of the world oil consumption in 2002, and those numbers are rising. (Oil Demand) As demands increase and the supplies of oil continue a rapid depletion, large political powers in the US struggle to keep their heads afloat. Many conspiracy theories have dabbled in the pool of scandal within the Whitehouse’s knowledge of September 11 before it happened, and George W. Bush’s master plan to wage a â€Å"War on Terror†, with a backdrop of draining the last of the oil supplies from the mid-East. Every conspiracy theory needs to be taken with a grain of salt, but it is important to remember our past. It was only until long after the Vietnam war that people were told of the pre-knowledge of utter lack of any possibility for them to win the war, yet officials still pressured our armies into Vietnam until near extinction. In 50 years, we will all know the real deal behind September 11th and George Bush’s strong motives to pursue the War on Terror (even when the rest of the world advices against it.) The US is a country with one of the most unhealthiest addictions possible: oil. Just as a heroine addict who is running low on fixes, the US is running low on supplies, and drastic, unwise measures are being taken in order to sustain this addiction for just a bit longer. This enters the Enron-Cheney-Taliban Connection, which has startling information that aligns a bit of history prior to September 11. The mother of all oil support and scandal rests with Enron, however, witho... ...ependency on the mid-East, bring our troops home, and make for a better future for our children. â€Å"Is the White House covering up that it was molding foreign policy as well as energy policy to suit Enron? Did the Bush Administration know that Enron's collapse was coming as early as August? If any of these are true, the largest bankruptcy in American history may well connect with the greatest political scandal in American history.† (Callari) Bibliographies: Callari. The Enron-Cheney-Taliban Connection. 28 Feb 2002. 14 Feb 2007. Albion Monitor. Oil Demand. 2006. 14 Feb. 2007. Interesting Oil Industry Statistics. Oil: Facts Behind the Fiction. 25 May 2006. 14 Feb. 2007. BBC News.